PV System Design and Evaluation

SERIS can assist project owners and developers in the design of their PV systems for performance optimisation and to meet the highest quality standards, in particular for installations in the tropics. For example, SERIS has designed and commissioned a PV system that, since 2011, has been operating in Singapore with an exceptionally high performance ratio of almost 90%.  SERIS assists its clients until the systems are fully operational and perform as originally planned.

Typical PV system services offered by SERIS are tabled below.

Yield Estimation

Initial estimation of annual energy yield and performance ratio (PR)*, based on the following criteria:

  • Location
  • Module technology
  • Inverter concept
  • Tilt angle
  • Azimuth

Yield Assessment

Yield assessment of annual energy output and PR*, based on the proposed system design (by client) and various data for the global horizontal irradiation from several sources (by SERIS). This includes shading analysis and quantification of system losses

Optimized System Design for High-Performance

All “Yield assessment” services, plus:

  • Optimisation of the proposed system design (mechanical, electrical up to medium voltages) for high system performance, based on existing PR*benchmarks

Third-Party Verification

All “Optimised system design for high performance” services, plus:

  • Suitability of the key plant components
  • Detailed review of system design (mechanical, electrical up to medium voltages) and cross-check against current industry practices


  • Review against given guidelines (statement of compliance)

Project Due Diligence

All “third-party verification” services, plus detailed review of:

  • Track record of suppliers and turnkey providers
  • Project structure and obligations of project parties
  • Technical warranties
  • Project management
  • Operations and maintenance concept
  • Project risks and mitigations
  • Financial modelling
  • Factory inspections

Full Project Partnership

All “Project due diligence” services, plus:

  • Site visit prior to project closure
  • Construction monitoring
  • Final acceptance
  • Operations and maintenance reviews
  • Analytical on-site monitoring with calibrated equipment


  • Sample testing of solar modules

* The performance ratio PR is the ratio of actual AC yield of a PV system over the theoretically expected DC yield. The latter is based on in-plane irradiance measurements as well as the module’s indoor power output under standard test conditions (STC).

Left: SERIS engineer performing on-site measurements prior to commissioning. Right: Photo of a newly installed PV system in Singapore where SERIS performed various PV system quality assurance services. Photo courtesy of the Singapore American School.

Contact Person: Dr Darryl WANG